The Jewish–Roman wars were a series of large-scale revolts by the Jews of the Eastern Mediterranean against the Roman Empire between 66 and 136 CE. While the First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE) and the Bar Kokhba revolt (132–136 CE) were nationalist rebellions, striving to restore an independent Judean state, the Kitos War was more of an ethno-religious conflict, mostly fought outside the Judea Province. Hence, some sources use the term Jewish-Roman Wars to refer only to the First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE) and the Bar Kokhba revolt (132–135 CE), while others include the Kitos War (115–117 CE) as one of the Jewish–Roman wars. In what we in our culture would call biblical times — but the area had been under control of many different people groups before and after that. Even in the time of the New Testament, it was Roman territory.

The Roman politician Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (106-48 BCE), better known as Pompey, was one of the greatest generals of his age. In the seventies, he had pacified Hispania, and on his return to Italy, he had put an end to the slave revolt led by Spartacus.The Siege of Jerusalem (63 BC) occurred during Pompey the Great's campaigns in the east, shortly after his successful conclusion of the Third Mithridatic War.The Siege of Jerusalem occurred during Pompey the Great's campaigns in the east, shortly after his successful conclusion of the Third Mithridatic War. Pompey had been asked to intervene in an internecine war between Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II for the throne of the Hasmonean Kingdom. His conquest of Jerusalem, however, spelled the end of Jewish independence and the incorporation of Judea into the Roman Republic as a client kingdom.The death of Hasmonean queen Alexandra Salome plunged Judea into a civil war between her two sons, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. After Aristobulus ousted his elder brother from both the throne and the high priesthood in Jerusalem, Antipater the Idumean advised Hyrcanus to enlist the aid of King Aretas III of Nabataea. In return for the promise of territorial concessions, Aretas provided Hyrcanus with 50,000 soldiers, and their joint forces besieged Aristobulus in Jerusalem.Pompey had followed the successful conclusion of the Third Mithridatic War with the creation of the Province of Syria and had spent 64 and 63 BC bringing law and order to the region. Events in Judea prompted Aemilius Scaurus, Pompey's legate in Damascus, to arrive in Jerusalem. Scaurus was approached by both parties, but the issue was settled by a bribe from Aristobulus,[4] and Scaurus ordered Arestas to lift his siege of the city. As the Nabataean army withdrew towards Philadelphia, Aristobulus set off in pursuit and defeated the Nabataeans at Papyron.

By the end of the war, Israel had conquered 78 percent of Palestine; three-quarters of a million Palestinians had been made refugees; over 500 towns and villages had been obliterated; and a new map was drawn up, in which every city, river and hillock received a new, Hebrew name, as all vestiges of the Palestinian culture were to be erased. For decades Israel denied the existence of this population, former Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir once saying: “There were no such thing as Palestinians.

 More than just a military defeat by Israel, the 1967 Six-Day War dealt a death blow to Arab nationalism, which helped Palestinian groups to free themselves from Arab governments but also fostered the rise of Islamism.

The conflict in Palestine is going to get worse. Both sides are going to do vile and evil things. The Israelis have the better weapons, so they’re most likely to win in the short term. (Remember that Israel also has nuclear weapons. Remember that every time a president tells you that “weapons of mass destruction” is an excuse for invading a country.) In the long term, it’s hard to say what will happen.The history of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict began with the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948.This conflict came from the intercommunal violence in Mandatory Palestine between Israelis and Arabs from 1920 and erupted into full-scale hostilities in the 1947–48 civil war. The conflict continues to the present day on various levels.Before World War I, the Middle East region, including the Ottoman Syria (the southern part of which are regarded as Palestine), was under the control of the Ottoman Empire for nearly 400 years.Towards the end of the 19th century, Palestine, which was divided between the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem, Syria Vilayet and Beirut Vilayet, was inhabited predominantly by Arab Muslims, both farmers and Bedouin (principally in the Negev and Jordan Valley), with smaller numbers of Christians (mostly Arabs), Druze, Circassians and Jews (predominantly Sephardic). At that time most of the Jews worldwide lived outside Palestine, predominantly in eastern and central Europe,with significant communities in the Mediterranean, the Middle East and the Americas.The delegates at the First Zionist Congress, held in Basel, Switzerland (1897).The roots of the conflict can be traced to the late 19th century, with the rise of national movements, including Zionism and Arab nationalism. Though the Jewish aspiration to return to Zion had been part of Jewish religious thought for more than a millennium, the Jewish population of Europe and to some degree Middle East began to more actively discuss immigration back to the Land of Israel, and the re-establishment of the Jewish Nation, only during 1859 to the 1880s, largely as a solution to the widespread persecution of Jews, and antisemitism in Russia and Europe. As a result, the Zionist movement, the modern movement for the creation of a homeland for the Jewish people, was established as a political movement in 1897.

Gaza, 1967. Israeli soldiers interrogate Palestinians in Jabalia refugee camp. The Six Day War , also called June War or Third Arab-Israeli War, brief war that took place June 5–10, 1967, and was the third of the Arab-Israeli wars. Israel’s decisive victory included the capture of the Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, West Bank, Old City of Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights; the status of these territories subsequently became a major point of contention in the Arab-Israeli conflict.

The 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine was the first phase of the 1948 Palestine war. It broke out after the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted a resolution on 29 November 1947 recommending the adoption of the Partition Plan for Palestine.The war was fought along the entire, long border of the country: against Lebanon and Syria in the north; Iraq and Transjordan - renamed Jordan during the war - in the east; Egypt, assisted by contingents from the Sudan - in the south; and Palestinians and volunteers from Arab countries in the interior of the country.It was the bloodiest of Israel's wars. It cost 6,373 killed in action (from pre-state days until 20 July 1949) almost 1% of the yishuv (the Jewish community) - although that figure includes quite a number of new immigrants and some foreign volunteers.(29 November 1947 - 1 April 1948), it was the Palestinian Arabs who took the offensive, with the help of volunteers from neighboring countries; the yishuv had little success in limiting the war - it suffered severe casualties and disruption of passage along most of the major highways. (1 April - 15 May) the Haganah took the initiative, and in six weeks was able to turn the tables - capturing, inter alia, the Arab sections of Tiberias, Haifa and later also Safed and Acre, temporarily opening the road to Jerusalem and gaining control of much of the territory alotted to the Jewish State under the UN Resolution.(15 May - 19 July), considered the critical one, opened with the simultaneous, coordinated assault on the fledgling state by five regular Arab armies from neighboring countries, with an overwhelming superiority of heavy equipment - armor, artillery and airforce.On 31 May the Haganah was renamed the "Israel Defence Forces". The IDF suffered initial setbacks, including the loss of the Etzion Bloc in Judea, the area of Mishmar Hayarden in the north and Yad Mordehai in the south, but after three weeks was able to halt the offensive, to stabilize the front and even initiate some local offensive operations. (19 July 1948 - 20 July, 1949) was characterized by Israeli initiatives: Operation Yoav, in October, cleared the road to the Negev, culminating in the capture of Be'er Sheva; Operation Hiram, at the end of October, resulted in the capture of the Upper Galilee; Operation Horev in December 1948 and Operation Uvda in March 1949, completed the capture of the Negev, which had been alotted to the Jewish State by the United Nations.Simultaneously, the Arab countries signed Armistice Agreements: first came Egypt - 24 February 1949; followed by Lebanon - 23 March; Jordan - 3 April; and Syria - 20 July. Only Iraq did not sign an armistice agreement with Israel. It preferred to withdraw its troops and hand over its sector to the Arab Legion of Jordan.In the end Israel not only ejected the invading Arab forces - it also captured and held some 5,000 km2 over and above the areas allocated to it by the United Nations.In the middle of the War of Independence, the IDF was born, not on 15 May, but two weeks later; for two more weeks Ben-Gurion negotiated with the "dissident" armed organizations, the Etzel and Lehi, convincing them to disband voluntarily before he disbanded them in the Order of the Establishment of the IDF on 31 May 1948. That order provided for only one armed force, subordinate to the constitutional government. There was complete continuity between the Haganah and the IDF: Ya'acov Dori, the Chief of Staff; the members of the General Staff; the commanders from brigade-level downwards - all were automatically confirmed in their appointments.At the end of the war the IDF had over 100,000 full-time men and women in uniform, as compared to the mere handful of full-time soldiers at its beginning. In addition to 12 brigades, mostly infantry, it had several regiments of artillery. The first armored regiments were equipped with light armored vehicles, some captured, some "requisitioned" from the departing British troops; and a few tanks - two Cromwells "bought" from the withdrawing British and some reconstituted from American scrap.The Navy consisted at first of reconverted illegal immigrant vessels. There were the elements of an Air Force - Spitfires and Messerschmidts, acquired mainly in Czechoslovakia, in addition to the light civilian planes which the Haganah had used for reconnaissance and communications purposes. Some World War II US war surplus bombers were bought as scrap. These carried out their first "strategic attack" on Cairo, en route to Israel, even before reaching their homebase. Armed with a Baedeker tourist guide, one of them bombed and strafed Abdeen Palace: rudimentary, to be sure, but entirely unexpected and, therefore, psychologically effective.As soon as the armistice agreements were signed and the immediate danger had passed, the IDF - except for a small nucleus - was not only demobilized, but effectively disbanded. The new state had urgent tasks which required all its resources, above all that of absorbing the flood of new immigrants, who at last were able to come "home". An attempt to keep the demobilized soldiers in some sort of reserve framework failed. However, for the time being there was little inclination on the Arab side to renew full-scale fighting. Not that they had come to face reality and recognized Israel - far from it; but they did realize that to fight against Israel required thorough preparation.

PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization) leader Yasser Arafat appears before the United Nations General Assembly on the topic of a Palestinian state, New York, New York, November 13, 1974.After many years of leading the struggle for Palestinian statehood, in 1974 PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat addressed the United Nations saying: "Today I come bearing an olive branch in one hand, and the freedom fighter's gun in the other. Do not let the olive branch fall from my hand. I repeat, do not let the olive branch fall from my hand."

Handshakes are a symbol of peace and goodwill, but only a few have created history. brings you a collection of historic handshakes. President Clinton with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestine Liberation Organisation Chairman Yasser Arafat after the signing of the Israeli-PLO peace accord, at the White House.The Declaration of Principles (1993) which formally started the peace process between Israel and the PLO was based on a lot of naïve goodwill and hope. The basic premise or rationale was that we would delay confronting the core issues in conflict until trust had developed between the parties. So negotiating borders, Jerusalem and refugees was postponed for an agreed period of up to five years while subsequent agreements were supposed to create the machinery for working together and building trust. I counted 26 joint Israeli-Palestinian bodies created by the agreements covering virtually every aspect of life and interaction between Israelis and Palestinians.

The Oslo Accords were signed by Yitzhak Rabin, prime minister of the state of Israel, and the PLO chieftain Yasir Arafat, thereafter to be known as president of the new Palestinian Authority.
For several decades, the conflict between Israel and its neighbour states, and between Israelis and Palestinians, has been among the most irreconcilable and menacing in international politics. The parties have caused each other great suffering.By concluding the Oslo Accords, and subsequently following them up, Arafat, Peres and Rabin have made substantial contributions to a historic process through which peace and cooperation can replace war and hate.

More toxic betrayals followed when Jewish settlers seized Palestinian lands and when international resolutions for Palestinian statehood, like the White Paper, were ignored. Like other members of his generation, Arafat was deeply impacted when one-million Palestinians lost their homes when a Jewish-Israeli state was established in 1947.Palestine was partitioned by the U.N. A new Jewish-Israeli state now controlled 55 percent of Palestinian territory. In 1954 and out of desperation, Arafat persuaded some Palestinians the time had come to launch an armed struggle against Israel, regarded as a colonial power. The PLO (Fatah) also asserted itself as an independent organization focused on Palestinian nationalism and culture. For many, the PLO was attempting to merely fulfill broken promises.For trying to regain their lands, establish a state, and maintain a sense of national and cultural identity, Palestinians were intercepted and imprisoned, some tortured and killed. The PLO viewed the Israeli army as the occupier of lands that legitimately belonged to them. Toxic Israeli military incursions into Palestinian refugee camps left hundreds dead.Due to several military conflicts between Israel (backed by U.S. military and economic aid) and surrounding Arab neighbors, Israeli forces eventually seized 20,000 square miles of Palestinian land. Later, the West Bank and Gaza Strip would also be dominated by Israel. Meanwhile, one-million Palestinians continued to live and exist as refugees.The U.N. Security Council even adopted a resolution emphasizing the "inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by war" and called for the "withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in recent conflicts." But Israel ignored this resolution. It also maintained its venomous view that Palestine was "a land without people."But still, Arafat and the PLO came bearing an olive branch and peace. After suffering years of discrimination, the confiscation of their lands, and the building of Jewish settlements in the heart of Arab-Palestinian communities and on holy sites, a nonviolent Intifadah campaign was started which demonstrated the will of the PLO and Arafat.And even though Arafat's and the Palestinian's demands for the return of their occupied territories and the creation of a Palestinian state remained elusive, in 1993 the Palestinian National Authority (PLO) compromised even more, allowing Israeli settlements to expand and giving more "security control" to the Israeli military.There are two primary issues at the core of this continuing conflict. First, there is the inevitably destabilizing effect of trying to maintain an ethnically preferential state, particularly when it is largely of foreign origin.The original population of what is now Israel was 96 percent Muslim and Christian, yet, these refugees are prohibited from returning to their homes in the self-described Jewish state (and those within Israel are subjected to systematic discrimination).Second, Israel’s continued military occupation and confiscation of privately owned land in the West Bank, and control over Gaza, are extremely oppressive, with Palestinians having minimal control over their lives.Thousands of Palestinian men, women, and children are held in Israeli prisons. Few of them have had a legitimate trial; Physical abuse and torture are frequent. Palestinian borders (even internal ones) are controlled by Israeli forces. Periodically men, women, and children are strip searched people are beaten; women in labor are prevented from reaching hospitals (at times resulting in death) food and medicine are blocked from entering Gaza, producing an escalating humanitarian crisis. Israeli forces invade almost daily, injuring, kidnapping, and sometimes killing inhabitants.According to the Oslo peace accords of 1993, these territories were supposed to finally become a Palestinian state. However, after years of Israel continuing to confiscate land and conditions steadily worsening, the Palestinian population rebelled.


Both Israel and Palestinian militants may have committed war crimes during the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict, UN investigators have said.The conflict lasted for 50 days between July and August, and ended in a truce.On the Palestinian side, 2,251 people, of whom 1,462 were civilians, were killed, the report said. On the Israeli side, 67 soldiers were killed along with six civilians, it noted.

Israel-Gaza conflict 2014: 50-day war by numbers.Gaza is picking up the pieces of a 50-day war that left more than 2,200 people dead.People are beginning to leave refugee camps and UN shelters amid hopes that a ceasefire declared yesterday will hold but many have no home to return to.More than 20,000 homes are estimated to have been rendered uninhabitable by shelling and air strikes that the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) claimed targeted only “terrorist” sites used by Hamas for military purposes.Just a day before the peace deal was struck, bombing toppled one of Gaza’s tallest buildings, the 15-storey Basha Tower full of apartments and offices, after days of strikes against shopping complexes and high rises.The UN estimates that more than 20,000 homes have been reduced to rubble or rendered uninhabitable and workers are racing to avert humanitarian crisis by fixing damaged water mains and power lines.The first major ground battle in two weeks of Israel-Hamas fighting exacted a steep price : It killed 65 Palestinians and 13 Israeli soldiers and forced thousands of terrified Palestinian civilians to flee their neighborhood, reportedly used to launch rockets at Israel and now devastated by the fighting.Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said the offensive would continue “as long as necessary” to end attacks from Gaza on Israeli civilians.But Hamas seems defiant, international cease-fire efforts are stalled, and international criticism is becoming more vocal as the death toll among Palestinian civilians rises.U.N. chief Ban Ki-moon called Israel’s latest incursion “atrocious,” and said it must do far more to protect civilians.In Israel, public opinion will struggle to tolerate rising military losses in an open-ended campaign. Already, Sunday’s deaths marked the highest number of soldiers killed on a single day since Israel’s war in Lebanon in 2006.The ferocious battle in Gaza City’s Shijaiyah neighborhood came on the third day of Israel’s ground offensive, which had been preceded by a 10-day air campaign.In all, at least 432 Palestinians were killed and more than 3,000 wounded in the past two weeks. The overall death toll on the Israeli side rose to 20, including 18 soldiers, along with dozens of wounded troops, during that period.

More than 7,000 Palestinians, many of them without charge or trial, are reportedly imprisoned in 17 Israeli jails and detention centers.Israeli torture of Palestinian children ‘increasing.the Prisoners’ Commission has eyewitness accounts of Palestinian children being beaten and tortured by Israeli security forces while in detention. Hiba Masalha provided the media with a number of examples of such incidents on Wednesday. They are on the increase, she pointed out.

Comment Box is loading comments...
Created with Mozello - the world's easiest to use website builder.