IRANIAN WOMEN AFTER 1979'S REVOLUTION.WHAT IS IT LIKE TO BE WOMEN IN IRAN? WHAT ARE THE LAWS REGARDING WHAT THEY MAY NOT DO ?
Ghoncheh Ghavami, the young Iranian women rights activist jailed for attempting to enter a men-only stadium to watch a volleyball match - has been transferred to a high-security prison in Tehran that holds criminals.A spokesman for Iran's judiciary denied the comments by Ghoncheh's lawyer that she had been sentenced to one year in jail on charges of propaganda against the regime.
Iran's big woman problem: All of the things Iranian women aren't allowed to do.Women are generally accepted in the workplace in Iran - although, once again, there are restrictions.But when the Iranian revolution happened and Ayatollah Khomeini founded the Islamic Republic of Iran, women’s freedoms were taken away again. They were forced to wear the veil and they were segregated by gender. Under Article 1117 of the Civil Code, an Iranian man can ban his wife from working if he believes this would be “incompatible with the interests of the family or with his or his wife’s dignity.Women’s Rights Movements in Iran between the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1905 and the Islamic Revolution of 1979.Since revolutionary time period after 1979, women in Iran have been veiled with a hijab and given a lack of political power. The conditions for women in Iran have gone through a whirlwind of ups and downs and highs and lows. At some points in time, women were optimistic towards gaining equal rights compared to men and at other times, they were defeated by the opposed clergy against women’s equality. Iranian women’s rights to unveiling/veiling and social status altered tremendously between the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1905 and the Islamic Revolution of 1979. These changes occurred because of the constant clashing of modern and traditional ruling in Iran. The unjustness towards women in Iran was caused by a creation of a negative relationship between gender and politics that unequally allowed governing over women’s rights to unveil as well as their rights to not let political power of state and religion come between their right to own their sexuality and determine their own social status.The Constitutional Revolution of 1905-1911 served as a basis for democratic and equality conquest where women participated for constitution, education and enfranchisement. Women would gain a few minor rights but still remain viewed as the “weaker sex.” A parliament was formed as foreign rule was eliminated and women were able to gain rights to education. Their participation showed their progress towards incorporating feminism into nationalism and anti imperialism . The 1906 constitution created enfranchised men but not women and also denied women of the political rights they were hoping to receive. However, the constitution did state that all Iranian citizens would be protected under equal rights . It did not state the differences between how men would be treated compared to the treatment of women. Women were always safeguarded from the public and outside world to the point where no windows in their houses could be facing outside streets and they would need permission to go places . If they were to go places, they would either be accompanied by a male family member or shielded with other women or children. Despite the harsh seclusion women experienced, they still managed to leave their homes and participate in the revolution for their equality.
Feminism in Iran essentially began in the sixth century BC in Ancient Persia. The religion of the time was Zoroastrian an old belief system that has nothing to do with Islam and places a strong emphasis on equality between men and women. It meant their society had female leaders,female army commanders.The seventh century saw the Arab invasion. They brought Islam into the country and with it, a decline in women’s rights.
Iran is one of the most misunderstood countries in the world.Women are banned from leaving the country without first receiving permission from their husbands; single Iranian women (up to age 40) may need their father’s permission to travel abroad. Husbands can ban their wives from leaving the country at any time. The core beliefs of an Iranian is 180 degrees different than his next door neighbour, not to mention how much different it could be from city to city. having said that, each individual Iranian's habits, beliefs & life style varies from one to another based on her family values.However, unfortunately when you look at a nation by it's religion - especially Islam - it tends to perceive a less intellect, less modern nation. Although they accept the fact there are many limitations to an Iranian woman comparing to an american woman such as wearing a mandatory scarf in public, not being allowed to drink alcohol & many other things. but Iran has it's own underground scene which I, as someone who born and raised in Iran and lived the other half in the west, has not really seen much of a difference in the QUALITY of their life but the rest of the world has seen the face of Iran by it's officials.This is a fashion by young girls in Iran. of course this is a very limited way of looking at one nation's culture, and I don't intend to cover all the aspects from education, marriage, equality & other aspects, not to mention I'm a man, but what I am trying to portray for people from western culture is that Iranian woman, although not having as much as freedom as women in a western culture, but they are not living under a rock. It revises the tendency in the existing scholarship on modern education and reform to credit the Pahlavi state as the initiator of female education. Specifically, I argue that modern-style girls’ schooling did not begin in the 1920s with the founding of statesponsored girls’ schools of the late Qajar and early Riza Shah era, but in an earlier period under the auspices of indigenous religio-ethnic minorities and Muslims. The Riza Shah era was an important phase of a longer-term trend that placed both state support and propaganda behind the early twentieth-century girls’ school movement. But it was the founders of the first modern Iranian girls’ schools who had already made important decisions in framing the structure, content, and organization of these schools. The study is based primarily on the memoirs of Iranian educators, the writings of foreign observers in Iran active in Iranian education circles, and Persian-language press sources.
Islam took hold and it’s a religion that's able to evolve,from then on, there were odd moments where women’s rights were regained and then revoked. But things only really changed in 1925, when Reza Shah Pahlavi came into power. In a way, he and his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi were Iran’s ultimate feminists. Over their 54 year rule, they made a number of drastic reforms to liberate women – westernising education, modernising dress, and increasing the minimum age of marriage. In 1935 the veil was temporarily abolished (the Shah's son then decreed women could choose whether or not to wear it)
It was Ruhollah Mostafavi Moosavi Khomeini, whose hatred of the West would dictate his every political move, even at the expense of the Iranian people. Once in power, Khomeini expelled virtually every hint of Western modernity for an Iranian "authenticity" as defined by an absolute zealot, and the West has since been left with a monolithic, fundamentalist regime more difficult to negotiate with than Mossadegh ever was.The tragedy is this: almost as soon as Khomeini created the Islamic Republic in 1979, these women understood what they’d done. But though Khomeini’s regime outwardly seemed to oppress women, it wasn’t that simple. In the same way Pahlavi didn’t fully liberate women, Khomeini did not totally restrict them.His implementation of Islamic law meant that the miniskirt-wearing Iranian women of the 60s and 70s were suddenly forced to put on veils. They had to have segregated education and could not work as freely as before.But this reintroduction of the veil and single-sex education, meant that traditional families were comfortable in allowing their daughters to go to school and gain an education. By giving girls an education, Khomeini ultimately paved their way for another revolution – a feminist one. Under his patriarchal rule, women’s rights actually started to thrive.“The irony of Iran is what the Shah had wanted has come to fruition during a most unexpected era,” she adds.The case of Iran is no exception. Beginning in the 20th century, Iran had been ruled by the Shah monarchy, which funded its decadent lifestyle through oil-mainly through concessions to Great Britain, which relied heavily upon the oil during both World Wars- while allowing the majority of Iranians to live a life defined by poverty. Over time, Iranians grew tired of working to see wealth literally extracted from beneath their feet, and a man named Mohammad Mossadegh rose to power.Today, Iran is still an Islamic Republic. Women are severely restricted by the law – they must cover their heads in public, they cannot travel internationally without their husbands’ permission and their husbands have the right to stop them working if they think their job ‘damages their dignity’.
Shah Iran Pahlavi was 'too much too soon',he wanted to emancipate women and on the outside that’s exactly what it looked like. Iranian girls and women went to university, wore miniskirts and women’s magazines thrived.But this is one of the biggest ‘myths’ that not all Iranian women were actually liberated. Many traditional families did not want to embrace these new policies, and when the veil was banned, strict fathers would stop their daughters from leaving the house. It meant they were unable to go to school, and many were prohibited from the new freedoms the Shah wanted them to have.
Comment Form is loading comments...