THE YUGOSLAV CIVIL WARS (1991–1999/2001) ,EUROPE'S WORST ATROCITY SINCE THE WORLD WAR II.A MODERN GENOCIDE,THE FRAGMENTATION OF YUGOSLAVIA: NATIONALISM IN MULTINATIONAL STATE.
Josip Broz Tito,president of Yugoslavia, original name Josip Broz, (born May 7, 1892, Kumrovec, near Zagreb, Croatia, Austria-Hungary [now in Croatia]—died May 4, 1980, Ljubljana, Yugoslavia [now in Slovenia]), Yugoslav revolutionary and statesman. He was secretary-general (later president) of the Communist Party (League of Communists) of Yugoslavia (1939–80), supreme commander of the Yugoslav Partisans (1941–45) and the Yugoslav People’s Army (1945–80), and marshal (1943–80), premier (1945–53), and president (1953–80) of Yugoslavia. Tito was the chief architect of the “second Yugoslavia,” a socialist federation that lasted from World War II until 1991. He was the first Communist leader in power to defy Soviet hegemony, a backer of independent roads to socialism (sometimes referred to as “national communism”), and a promoter of the policy of nonalignment between the two hostile blocs in the Cold War.
YUGOSLAVIA BREAKS UP:Meanwhile, Yugoslavia's government struggled unsuccessfully to cope with a plunging economy and the re-emergence of local nationalism. The 165-member Central Committee of the Yugoslav Communist Party held an emergency session in October 1988 but could not find a solution to the problem. Two months later, the entire Yugoslavian cabinet resigned. In January 1989, the Communist Party voted to give up its power monopoly. Yugoslavia's breakup began in May 1991, when Croatia and Slovenia declared their independence from the Serbian-dominated central government in Belgrade.
Yugoslav Civil War (1991–1999/2001)-The breakup of Yugoslavia as one nation, involved two separate but related wars. The Yugoslav regions of Slovenia and Croatia declared independence from the Belgrade government.The former Yugoslavia was a Socialist state created after German occupation in World War II and a bitter civil war. A federation of six republics, it brought together Serbs, Croats, Bosnian Muslims, Albanians, Slovenes and others under a comparatively relaxed communist regime. Tensions between these groups were successfully suppressed under the leadership of President Josip Broz Tito.Bickering after Tito dies,communist Yugoslavia, which emerged shortly after the end of World War II, was made up of six republics: Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, Montenegro and Macedonia.Following the death of its autocratic leader Josip Broz Tito in 1980, the Yugoslav federation found itself in crisis, with bickering between ethnic groups and surging nationalist sentiments.The disintegration of Yugoslavia as the Cold War was winding down, resulted from a breakdown of the nation-building of Marshal Josip Broz Tito, the wartime guerrilla leader who ruled Yugoslavia from 1945 until his death in 1980. Tito was dedicated to a global communist ideal that transcended individual ethnic nationalism. He also shrewdly recognized the threat to Yugoslavian unity posed by a strong Serbia, the largest of the country's republics. When piecing together post-World War II Yugoslavia, Tito deliberately divided Serbia into two non-contiguous provinces Vojvodina in the north and Kosovo in the south. The gerrymandering left one-third of the Serbian population outside their own province and an Albanian majority firmly in place.By the time the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, inter-ethnic relations in Yugoslavia were at breaking point. The first multiparty elections in the republics in 1990 were won mostly by nationalists.The most prosperous republics, Slovenia and Croatia, started advocating a greater decentralization of Yugoslavia's government.But the largest republic, Serbia, led by Slobodan Milosevic, rallied fellow Serbs throughout Yugoslavia in a push for centralized control.Slovenia and Croatia declare independence .On June 25, 1991, the parliaments of Slovenia and Croatia declared independence, which led to the deployment of the Belgrade-controlled Yugoslav army (JNA) towards affected borders and airports.After a 10-day conflict, the JNA withdrew from ethnically homogeneous Slovenia.But in Croatia, Serbian troops sided with ethnic Serb rebels who opposed independence, launching what would become a four-year war.The eastern town of Vukovar was razed to the ground during a siege by Yugoslav forces in autumn 1991, while the medieval Adriatic town of Dubrovnik was severely damaged.War had broken out in Bosnia in April 1992. The Bosnian Serb army swept eastwards. Srebrenica, a town of 36,000 where Muslims made up 75 percent of the population, was taken over by Serb troops but Muslims regained it after several weeks.Early in 1993, Serbs started an offensive on Muslim-held areas. Srebrenica and Zepa became isolated enclaves deep in Serb-held territory. Muslims from the area flocked to Srebrenica and the population swelled to 60,000. They had little food, water or medical supplies.Bosnia, with a complex mix of Serbs, Muslims and Croats, was next to try for independence. Bosnia's Serbs, backed by Serbs elsewhere in Yugoslavia, resisted. Under leader Radovan Karadzic, they threatened bloodshed if Bosnia's Muslims and Croats - who outnumbered Serbs - broke away. Despite European blessing for the move in a 1992 referendum, war came fast.In August 1995, the Croatian army stormed areas in Croatia under Serb control prompting thousands to flee. Soon Croatia and Bosnia were fully independent. Slovenia and Macedonia had already gone. Montenegro left later. In 1999, Kosovo's ethnic Albanians fought Serbs in another brutal war to gain independence. Serbia ended the conflict beaten, battered and alone.Not only the number of 8000 Muslim victims is exaggerated, but many of the victims, whose name are carved into the monument, live in the United States or vote at elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Namely, the Hague Court granted that all persons registered as missing are victims, in realistic reports alleges that about 2,000 Muslims were actually killed.The Genocide of Serbs,While the West is placing the burden of responsibility for the Yugoslav Wars on Serbs, it was the Serbian nation who is the greatest victim of these military conflicts.Dragana Trifkovic narrated that the Serbian civilians were the target of Western-backed Croatian armed forces who carried out ethnic cleansing of Serbs who have lived for centuries in these territories, particularly during the infamous Flash and Storm military operations. Croatian forces received military assistance and training from US military officers. Meanwhile in Bosnia and Herzegovina Muslim forces also received military aid from the West.