JIMMY CARTER PRESIDENTIAL ( 1977 -1981),PRESIDENT CARTER ADMIRED PRESIDENT HARRY TRUMAN FOR NOT TRYING TO PROFIT OFF HIS PRESIDENCY. ON HIS TIME THE US EMBASSY IN TEHRAN WAS STORMED AND DIPLOMATIC STAFF ARE TAKEN HOSTAGE.
The inauguration of President Jimmy Carter took place on January 20, 1977. Carter was sworn-in on the East Portico of the United States Capitol Building.Carter frequently spoke of his desire to mend the president’s relationship with the American people and restore the public’s trust in government. He began working towards this promise on Inauguration Day, walking down Pennsylvania Avenue and greeting attendees.
Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter's four children, three were grown by the time he became president. His daughter Amy lived with her parents at the White House and attended public schools in Washington. She was later admitted to Brown University.
January 20, 1977 Jimmy Carter takes the oath of office as the 39th president of the United States at the Capitol Thursday as his wife Rosalynn holds the Bible. Chief Justice of the United States Warren Burger administers the oath while Senator Howard Cannon of Nevada stands behind the Carters.Jimmy Carter's interest in politics may have come from his father, who had served in the Georgia legislature. In 1962 he ran for a seat in the Georgia Senate and defeated his Republican opponent by approximately one thousand votes. As a state senator, Carter promised to read every single bill that came up. When it looked as if he would not be able to keep this promise because of the large number of bills, he took a speed reading course to solve the problem. He earned a reputation as an effective legislator and was reelected to the state senate in 1964.In 1966 Carter decided to run for governor of Georgia. He lost to Lester Maddox in the Democratic primary election. Although disappointed, Carter pushed forward. Between 1966 and 1970 he traveled throughout the state, making close to eighteen hundred speeches, studying the problems of Georgia, and campaigning. In the 1970 election, Carter's hard work paid off and he won Georgia's top position.James Earl Carter, called Earl, was born in 1894 in Calhoun County. He attended Riverside Military Academy in Gainesville and served during World War I (1917-18). Upon his return to Georgia after the war, Earl owned a peanut-shelling plant and farmed in Sumter County, where he met and married Lillian Gordy. He also ran a small general store and, later, a large warehouse for farmers in Plains. Prospering, he owned hundreds of acres of land by the time the future president was three years old. The family employed household help and many laborers in the fields. Politically active, Earl served on the Sumter County school board and the Rural Electrification Administration board in Sumter County before his election as a state legislator, a position he held for a year before his death in 1953 from pancreatic cancer, the same disease that later killed both of his daughters and his younger son.Jimmy Carter may have had a distinguished career as a naval officer instead of as a politician. Carter had an affinity for the navy, and had set a goal of attending the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis. In 1941, at the age of 17, he began undergraduate coursework in engineering at Georgia Southwestern College in Americus, Georgia. The following year, he transferred to Georgia Tech in Atlanta, and in 1943 he attained his goal of admission to the Naval Academy.
Jimmy Carter was an above average student at Annapolis. He was remembered by some of his classmates as being reserved and quiet. At the academy Carter was a sprint football player for the Navy Midshipmen. However it at the academy that Carter met the love of his life, the woman who subsequently became, and remains his wife. His sister Ruth had a friend named Rosalynn Smith that Carter began to date.
Zbigniew Brzezinski (Zbigniew Kazimierz was a Polish-American diplomat and political scientist. He served as a counselor to President Lyndon B. Johnson from 1966 to 1968 and was President Jimmy Carter's National Security Advisor from 1977 to 1981.) and Cyrus Vance was an American lawyer and United States Secretary of State under President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1980.
The United States presidential election of 1976 was the 48th quadrennial presidential election, November 2, 1976. The winner was the Dark horse candidate Jimmy Carter, a former Governor from Georgia with his running mate, Walter Mondale, a U.S. Senator from Minnesota, the Democratic candidates, over the incumbent President Gerald Ford from Michigan and his running mate, Bob Dole, a U.S. Senator from Kansas, the Republican candidates.President Richard Nixon had resigned in 1974 in the wake of the Watergate scandal, but before doing so, he appointed Ford as Vice President via the 25th Amendment after Spiro Agnew resigned in the light of a scandal that implicated him in receiving illegal bribes while serving as Governor of Maryland. Ford was thus the only sitting President who had never been elected to national office. Saddled with a poor economy, the fall of South Vietnam, and paying a heavy political price for his pardon of Nixon, Ford first faced serious opposition from within his own party, when he was challenged for the Republican Party’s nomination by former California governor and future President Ronald Reagan. The race was so close that Ford was unable to secure the nomination until the Party Convention. Carter, who was less well known than other Democratic hopefuls, ran as a Washington outsider and reformer. He narrowly won the election, becoming the only president to date ever elected from Georgia.It was a notable election as all four presidential and vice-presidential candidates would ultimately lose a presidential election. Ford lost this year’s election and Carter failed in his bid for re-election in 1980; Mondale lost the 1984 election to incumbent Ronald Reagan in a landslide, and Dole lost his 1996 bid to incumbent Bill Clinton. It was also the most recent presidential election where the candidate who won the most states did not win the election, as well as the last time Alabama, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas voted for the Democratic candidate. It was also the first election since 1908 in which Nevada backed the losing candidate, and the last until 2016 that Nevada would do so. This is the earliest presidential election in which at least one major party candidate is still alive as of 2017, as Carter and both of the vice-presidential nominees, Dole and Mondale, are still living.
In 1970, Anwar Sadat became president of Egypt. He wanted to regain control of the Sinai and end the war with Israel. In 1973, Egypt attacked Israel and tried to retake the Sinai Peninsula in the Yom Kippur War. Although Israel won the war, Sadat gained political prestige in the region for his daring attack.
The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David.The two framework agreements were signed at the White House, and were witnessed by United States President Jimmy Carter. The second of these frameworks (A Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel) led directly to the 1979 Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty. Due to the agreement, Sadat and Begin received the shared 1978 Nobel Peace Prize. The first framework (A Framework for Peace in the Middle East), which dealt with the Palestinian territories, was written without participation of the Palestinians and was condemned by the United Nations. A mechanism had yet to be created for Israel and Egypt to pursue the talks begun by Sadat and Begin in Jerusalem.The Egyptian president suggested to Begin that Israel place a secret representative in the American embassy in Cairo. With American "cover," the true identity of the Israeli, who would liaise between the Egyptian and Israeli leaders, would be known only to the American ambassador in Cairo.Sadat's liaison initiative spoke volumes about his reasons for wanting to make peace with Israel. He wanted an alliance with the American superpower and he wanted to kill Carter's Geneva initiative.His trip to Jerusalem signaled a major reorientation of Cairo's place in the global scheme of things, from the Soviet to the American camp.Carter's acceptance of the proposed liaison scheme would have signaled American backing for Sadat's unprecedented peace initiative. But Carter said no. However, Carter could not thwart the Israeli-Egyptian peace push. Within days Israeli journalists were allowed into Cairo, breaking a symbolic barrier, and from there the peace process quickly gained momentum. An Israeli-Egyptian working summit was scheduled for 25 December in Ismailiya, near the Suez Canal.Accompanied by their capable negotiating teams and with their respective interests in mind, both leaders converged on Camp David for 13 days of tense and dramatic negotiations from 5 to 17 September 1978. By all accounts, Carter's relentless drive to achieve peace and his reluctance to allow the two men to leave without reaching an agreement are what played the decisive role in the success of the talks.
The Camp David Accords were historic peace agreements signed by the leaders of Egypt (President Anwar El Sadat) and Israel (Prime Minister Menachem Begin) on September 17, 1978. Secret talks to negotiate the agreements were held at Camp David in Maryland. United States President Jimmy Carter took part in the negotiations.Before the Camp David Accords, Israel and Egypt had been at war for many years. In 1967, Israel fought Egypt, Syria, and Jordan in the Six-Day War. Israel won the war and gained control of the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt.
Oct. 21, 1979, had been nagging the Administration for months: Should Mohammed Riza Pahlevi, the exiled Shah of Iran, be allowed to enter the United States. Despite the risks such a move would entail, especially for the skeleton crew of Americans manning the embassy in revolutionary Teheran, most of Carter's advisers were for it. The President himself had been adamantly opposed and had lost his temper more than once on the subject. But now a new and urgent development had changed the situation and Vance was on the telephone from Washington asking for a decision. Eighteen months later, in his first and only substantive interview on the Iranian crisis since leaving office, Jimmy Carter described the exchange.The United States had provided political support and, more recently, massive military assistance to the government of the shah of Iran. Iran was important because it provided oil to the industrial West and separated the Soviet Union from the Persian Gulf and the oil states. The United States had an enormous stake in keeping it stable and independent. By 1979, however, when Carter had been in office three years, the shah was in trouble, reaping the harvest of years of brutal and unpopular policies, including the use of secret police that controlled dissent with arbitrary arrests and torture. It was clear that the shah had lost the support of his people, but the president hoped a coalition of the moderate opponents might be formed. The stability of the country, though, was being threatened by a religious fanatic, the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who did not like the shah’s efforts to modernize and Westernize a fiercely religious, fundamentalist society. In January 1979, the shah fled into exile, and the theocratic regime of Khomeini took power. There was little informed understanding in the U.S. government about the political implications of this fundamentalist regime. What the hell is an ‘Ayatollah’ anyway." Turner said he wasn’t sure he knew. In the beginning, the Carter administration made some effort to establish a relationship with the new government, but by late 1979 it seemed futile. Up until this crisis, few Americans seemed aware of the deep resentments that many Iranian people continued to harbor toward the United States, a country they considered a symbol of Western intrusion into their society.Part of the problem stemmed from the desire of the shah, in October 1979, to come to New York City for cancer treatment. Many Iranians remembered a time in 1953 when the prime minister of Iran had challenged the authority of the shah, who in turn, fled the country. However, with the help of a CIA-supported coup, the monarch’s power was restored. Now Carter understood that if he allowed the deposed shah to come to the United States., Khomeini’s government would interpret the move as another example of the West’s arrogant interference in Iran’s affairs. Though Carter understood it was a politically volatile decision, he permitted the shah to come, based on a long alliance and "humanitarian principle." American diplomats in Iran met with the prime minister of the Ayatollah’s government to test reaction to the president’s decision. Though deeply opposed to this U.S. move, the prime minister gave assurances that the Iranian government would protect the safety of diplomatic personnel in Tehran.
Jimmy Carter and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, new information has come to light, showing how former US President Jimmy Carter blindly accepted false promises and helped Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini carry out the Iranian Revolution.From 1941 to 1979, Iran was ruled by Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, better known as the Shah (meaning "king"). Pahlavi's modernization and anti-Communist policies won the backing of many Western countries, which saw oil-rich Iran as a valuable ally in a tumultuous region. At the same time, though, his secularism and suppression of political opponents left him strongly disliked domestically.Pahlavi's regime was ultimately overthrown in the 1979 revolution, led by Ayatollah Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini.The BBC now reports that Khomeini had made several overtures to US presidents, asking them to encourage the Iranian military to stand down and allow the uprising to succeed. In exchange, he promised to continue the warm relationship between the two countries.
Days later, on November 4, a mob of 3,000 militants invaded the American embassy in Tehran, taking sixty-six diplomats and military personnel as hostages. The more moderate Iranian prime minister resigned in protest, and Khomeini was in full control. The militants demanded a return of the shah in exchange for the hostages. In the meantime, despite the fact that the Carter administration had arranged for the shah to leave the United States for Panama, the crisis continued unabated. In April 1980, after months of negotiations failed to result in the release of the hostages, the United States broke off diplomatic relations with Iran. Carter approved a hostage rescue mission by an elite paramilitary unit, the American commandos led by Colonel Charles Beckwith.6 It was a dismal failure. Several military helicopters broke down in the desert, and eight commandos died when two aircraft collided during the hasty retreat. The abortive mission seemed to many Americans a symbol of U.S. military weakness in the post-Vietnam era. Carter’s popularity plunged to 20 percent, even lower than Nixon’s during the Watergate scandal.The Iranian hostage crisis contributed greatly to Jimmy Carter’s loss of the presidency in the 1980 election. Americans had lost confidence in their leader. It wasn’t difficult. Each night television newscasts relayed images of angry anti-American mobs outside the embassy in Tehran, shouting "Death to America," "Death to Carter.The creation of the television program, Nightline, devoted strictly to discussion of the crisis, was a blatant reminder of Carter’s failure to secure the hostages’ release. Election day was the anniversary of the seizure, an irony that wasn’t lost on the American people, who voted for Ronald Reagan by large margins.Of course, their lives, safety, and freedom were the paramount considerations, but there was more to it. It seemed within reach. After months of negotiations the United States had agreed to release several billion dollars in Iranian gold and bank assets, frozen in American banks just after the seizure of the embassy. The government of Iran, now involved in a war with neighboring Iraq, was desperate for money and therefore seemed willing to release the hostages. The Iranians refused to communicate directly with the president, or any other American, so Algeria had agreed to act as an intermediary. This arrangement slowed down the negotiating process. As Carter recalled, "The Iranians, who spoke Persian, would talk only with the Algerians, who spoke French. Any question or proposal of mine had to be translated twice as it went from Washington to Algiers to Tehran, and then the answers and counterproposals had to come back to me over the same slow route.Much of the money involved was being held in overseas branches of twelve American banks, so Carter, his cabinet, and staff were constantly on the phone to London, Istanbul, Bonn, and other world capitals to work out the financial details.
Iran hostage crisis, international crisis (1979–81) in which militants in Iran seized 66 American citizens at the U.S. embassy in Tehrān and held 52 of them hostage for more than a year. The crisis, which took place during the chaotic aftermath of Iran’s Islamic revolution (1978–79) and its overthrow of the Pahlavi monarchy, had dramatic effects on domestic politics in the United States and poisoned U.S.-Iranian relations for decades. Jan. 20, 1981 | Iran Releases American Hostages as Reagan Takes Office.On Jan. 20, 1981, Iran released 52 Americans who had been held hostage for 444 days, minutes after the presidency had passed from Jimmy Carter to Ronald Reagan. The hostages were placed on a plane in Tehran as Reagan delivered his inaugural address.Reagan announced the release of the hostages later in the afternoon at a Congressional luncheon. “The news seemed to turn the inauguration celebration, normally a highly festive occasion, into an event of unbridled joy for Mr. Reagan and his supporters. David Roeder shouts and waves as he and others arrive at Rhein-Main U.S. Air Force base in Frankfurt, West Germany, from Algeria on Jan. 21, 1981. He was among 52 Americans held hostage in Iran for 444 days after their capture at the U.S. Embassy in Tehran.
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