Native Americans – The First Owners of America.Native Americans, or the indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, and their descendants. Those who live within the boundaries of the present-day United States are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, bands and ethnic groups, many of which survive as intact, sovereign nations.Most American Indians descend from a migration that began about 15,000 years ago

An image of one of the pyramids in the upper level of Yaxchilá.The term "pre-Columbian" is used especially  of the great indigenous civilizations of the Americas, such as those of Mesoamerica (the Aztec and Maya) and the Andes (Inca, Moche, Chibcha).Contemporary with Teotihuacan's greatness was that of the Maya civilization. The period between 250 CE and 650 CE was a time of intense flourishing of Maya civilized accomplishments. While the many Maya city-states never achieved political unity on the order of the central Mexican civilizations, they exerted a tremendous intellectual influence upon Mexico and Central America. The Maya built some of the most elaborate cities on the continent, and made innovations in mathematics, astronomy, and calendrics. The Mayans also evolved the only true writing system native to the Americas using pictographs and syllabic elements in the form of texts and codices inscribed on stone, pottery, wood, or highly perishable books made from bark paper.

The term pre-Columbian is used to refer to the cultures of the Americas in the time before significant European influence. While technically referring to the era before Christopher Columbus, in practice the term usually includes indigenous cultures as they continued to develop until they were conquered or significantly influenced by Europeans, even if this happened decades or even centuries after Columbus first landed, in 1492.These ones arrived at the Island in migrations coming from continental America. The first route is presumes that it was through North America until the coast of gulf of Mexico. These first groups were paleolithic hunters of mongoloid origin.The second migration, had dated approximately for 4500 years, came from Center and South America, they had a similar physiognomy similar to the first group. The third and quarter migration came fundamentally from Antilles around the 500 BCE.A classification more abided to the evolution of these human groups it also establishes three groups: the age of the shell , the age of the stone  and the age of the pottery.In common all these groups had a gentile matriarchal organization, with division of the work by sex and ages with a form of animist religion and cult to the ancestors.The Guanahatebeyes, they settled in the south coast of the occident of the Island of Cuba and in the Isla de Pino (Island of Youth). In this region the mollusks, crustaceans and birds proliferated. Their main activities were the platform fishing and the coastal collect. They developed techniques to make instruments with the marine shell, therefore their classification. They lived to open sky and rarely they used the caves.The Taínos. They were part of the family of the aruacos and they settled throughout the whole Island.They were farming, and with their main cultivation, the yucca, they manufactured the casabe, food that could not eat up only in the moment, but rather it could also conserve. They made objects and ceramic recipients and they got a varied instrumental of shell and refined stone. They lived in wooden houses and guano in diverse ways: from the cubic one classic , in form to circulate  or have more than enough piles (barbacoa), always in a circular disposition around a space central .

Pre-columbian Era image,Calixtlahuaca is the Aztec name for the city that they built over the defeated city of Matlatzinco sometime after 1476. Before that, the city was home to the Matlatzinca culture from the 12th century onwards and under Toltec influence before that point. The area itself has been occupied by nomadic cultures as far back as 3000BC.

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants.Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas.Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting, and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states, and empires.Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages, and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization, and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects, but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.he Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.While the phrase "pre-Columbian era" literally refers only to the time preceding Christopher Columbus's voyages of 1492, in practice the phrase is usually used to denote the entire history of indigenous Americas cultures until those cultures were vanquished, diminished, or extensively altered by Europeans, even if this happened decades or centuries after Columbus's first landing. For this reason the alternative terms of Precontact Americas, Pre-Colonial Americas or Prehistoric Americas are also in use. In areas of Latin America the term usually used is Pre-Hispanic.

Columbus  was  of the success of his first voyage spread like wildfire through Europe, setting the stage for an era of European conquest. One can argue whether the conquest was good or bad for humanity  .He wasn't a rich man when he died in Spain at age 54 in 1506. But he wasn't impoverished. He was living comfortably, economically speaking, in an apartment in Valladolid, Crown of Castile, in present-day Spain, albeit in pain from severe arthritis. Columbus had been arrested years prior on accusations of tyranny and brutality toward native peoples of the Americas. But he was released by King Ferdinand after six weeks in prison. He was subsequently denied most of the profits of his discoveries promised to him by Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.

European Conquests of the Americas (1492-1800)Columbus’ discovery of a route to the Americas in 1492 and Vasco da Gama’s feat of sailing around southern Africa to find the sea route to Asia in 1498. The risks were high when Spaniards and Portuguese first sailed across uncharted oceans. Many died from disease, exposure, starvation, and shipwrecks. But the potential material rewards could be glorious. So it’s not surprising that the first adventurers came to the Americas in search of riches.

Columbus shortly after landing, many of the island's inhabitants assembled on the beach and Columbus gave them gifts of red hats and beads. The natives reciprocated with gifts of parrots, cotton and other goods. In describing the natives, Columbus wrote: "They go as naked as when their mothers bore them, and so do the women, although I did not see more than one girl. They are very well made, with very handsome bodies, and very good countenances.

Many pre-Columbian civilizations established hallmarks which included permanent settlements, cities, agriculture, civic and monumental architecture, major earthworks, and complex societal hierarchies. Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the first permanent European colonies and the arrival of enslaved Africans,and are known only through archaeological investigations and oral history. Other civilizations were contemporary with the colonial period and were described in European historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya civilization, had their own written records. Because many Christian Europeans of the time viewed such texts as heretical, men like Diego de Landa destroyed many texts in pyres, even while seeking to preserve native histories. Only a few hidden documents have survived in their original languages, while others were transcribed or dictated into Spanish, giving modern historians glimpses of ancient culture and knowledge.Indigenous American cultures continue to evolve after the pre-Columbian era. Many of these peoples and their descendants continue traditional practices, while evolving and adapting new cultural practices and technologies into their lives.When the Europeans arrived, many natives of North America were semi-nomadic tribes of hunter-gatherers; others were sedentary and agricultural civilizations. Many formed new tribes or confederations in response to European colonization. Well-known groups included the Huron, Apache, Cherokee, Sioux, Mohegan, Iroquois (which included Mohawk, Oneida, Seneca, Cayuga, Onandaga, and later the Tuscarora tribes), and Inuit. Although not as technologically advanced or politically complex as the Mesoamerican civilizations further south, there were extensive pre-Columbian sedentary societies in what is now the United States of America.Columbus benefited from calm seas and steady winds that pushed him steadily westward . However, the trip was long, longer than anticipated by either Columbus or his crew. In order to mollify his crew's apprehensions, Columbus kept two sets of logs: one showing the true distance traveled each day and one showing a lesser distance. The first log was kept secret. The latter log quieted the crew's anxiety by under-reporting the true distance they had traveled from their homeland.During the 1650s and 60s, the English population increased dramatically in Virginia. Economic situations and the addition of new arrivals caused conflicts with the Native people. Raiding from both sides resulted, and the colonists were either confused or didn't care as to which tribes were friendly. Governor Berkeley gathered a force to deal with the situation, but the colonists murdered five chiefs who had requested peace. The governor pleaded for restraint from the colonists.Southern frontiersmen in Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia were infuriated by the treaties of Colerain and New York, as the feds had given back to the Creeks the land that Georgia had (illegally) obtained by cession from parts of that tribe during the 1780s. click here for more
Ad usual, American settlers ignored the legalities associated with Indian lands and continued to push across Indian frontiers, Despite federal efforts to enforce boundaries, the Creeks and Cherokees engaged in sporadic warfare on the frontier settlements with whites determined to encroach on their lands. For their part, the Indians resented the land cessions they had already made in a number of treaties that followed the revolution. The new incursions on Indian lands by southern frontiersmen rubbed salt in old wounds. Yet the federal government still hoped that firmly established boundaries and orderly advance of white settlers would produce peace.

Spain never attacked the Virginia colony. The Spanish missed their best opportunity to conquer England itself when the Armada was defeated in 1588, but remained a threat to the British colonies in North America.By the time the English concluded their major Civil War in 1660, rejecting Puritan rule and restoring Charles II to the throne, the Spanish had lost control over the Netherlands and Portugal. Spain failed to use its wealth from Mexico and Peru to create a strong domestic economy, and their potential to expand further north beyond their base at St. Augustine disappeared by the end of the 17th Century.

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