DUTCH IMPERIALISM/ COLONIZATION IN INDONESIA (1610-1948) 350 YEARS. INDONESIA WAS RULED BY THE DUTCH VOC( THE DUTCH EAST INDIES).LIFE UNDER THE DUTCH WAS HARSH IN MANY CASES.

Dutch Control in Indonesia,the Dutch East Indies was a Dutch colony in what is now modern day Indonesia. The islands of Indonesia, also known as the Indonesian archipelago and formerly known as the Indian archipelago, may refer either to the islands comprising the nation-state of Indonesia or to the geographical groups which include its islands. According to the Indonesian Coordinating Ministry for Maritime Affairs, of 17,504 officially listed islands within the territory of the Republic of Indonesia, 16,056 island names have been verified by the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) as of July 2017.

 List of Governors-General of the Dutch East Indies in Batavia (Today's Jakarta,Indonesia) :

  1. 1610–1614: Pieter Both

  2. 1614–1615: Gerard Reynst

  3. 1615–1619: Laurens Reael

  4. 1619–1623: Jan Pieterszoon Coen

  5. 1623–1627: Pieter de Carpentier

  6. 1627–1629: Jan Pieterszoon Coen

  7. 1629–1632: Jacques Specx

  8. 1632–1636: Hendrik Brouwer

  9. 1636–1645: Anthony van Diemen

  10. 1645–1650: Cornelis van der Lijn

  11. 1650–1653: Carel Reyniersz

  12. 1653–1678: Joan Maetsuycker

  13. 1678–1681: Rijckloff van Goens

  14. 1681–1684: Cornelis Speelman

  15. 1684–1691: Johannes Camphuys

  16. 1691–1704: Willem van Outhoorn

  17. 1704–1709: Joan van Hoorn

  18. 1709–1713: Abraham van Riebeeck

  19. 1713–1718: Christoffel van Swoll

  20. 1718–1725: Hendrick Zwaardecroon

  21. 1725–1729: Mattheus de Haan

  22. 1729–1732: Diederik Durven

  23. 1732–1735: Dirck van Cloon

  24. 1735–1737: Abraham Patras

  25. 1737–1741: Adriaan Valckenier

  26. 1741–1743: Johannes Thedens

  27. 1743–1750: Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff

  28. 1750–1761: Jacob Mossel

  29. 1761–1775: Petrus Albertus van der Parra

  30. 1775–1777: Jeremias van Riemsdijk

  31. 1777–1780: Reinier de Klerk

  32. 1780–1796: Willem Arnold Alting

Governors-General of the Dutch East Indies (1851–1931) in Batavia (Today's Jakarta,Indonesia)

  1. 1796–1801: Pieter Gerardus van Overstraten

  2. 1801–1805: Johannes Siberg

  3. 1805–1808: Albertus Henricus Wiese

  4. 1808–1811: Herman Willem Daendels

  5. 1811–1811: Jan Willem Janssens

  6. 1811–1816: Under British rule:

  7. 1816–1826: Godert van der Capellen

  8. 1826–1830: Leonard du Bus de Gisignies / Hendrik Merkus de Kock

  9. 1830–1833: Johannes van den Bosch

  10. 1833–1836: Jean Chrétien Baud

  11. 1836–1840: Dominique Jacques de Eerens

  12. 1840–1841: Carel Sirardus Willem van Hogendorp

  13. 1841–1844: Pieter Merkus

  14. 1844–1845: Joan Cornelis Reynst

  15. 1845–1851: Jan Jacob Rochussen

  16. 1851–1856: Albertus Jacobus Duymaer van Twist

  17. 1856–1861: Charles Ferdinand Pahud

  18. 1861–1866: Ludolph Anne Jan Wilt Sloet van de Beele

  19. 1866–1872: Pieter Mijer

  20. 1872–1875: James Loudon

  21. 1875–1881: Johan Wilhelm van Lansberge

  22. 1881–1884: Frederik s'Jacob

  23. 1884–1888: Otto van Rees

  24. 1888–1893: Cornelis Pijnacker Hordijk

  25. 1893–1899: Carel Herman Aart van der Wijck

  26. 1899–1904: Willem Rooseboom

  27. 1904–1909: Johannes Benedictus van Heutsz

  28. 1909–1916: Alexander Willem Frederik Idenburg

  29. 1916–1921: Johan Paul van Limburg Stirum

  30. 1921–1926: Dirk Fock

  31. 1926–1931: Andries Cornelis Dirk de Graeff

  32. 1931–1936: Bonifacius Cornelis de Jonge

  33. 1936–1942: Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer

  34. 1942–1948: Hubertus van Mook

  35. 1948–1949: Louis Beel (high commissioner)

  36. 1949: A.H.J Lovink (high commission

The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indós (Ἰνδός) and the word nèsos (νῆσος), meaning "Indian islands".The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia.Between 1610-1948‘the Company’, as it was commonly known, exercised strict control over spice production on the islands and the people living there. They organized production of food and spices forcing local communities to fulfill quotas, essentially using them as slave labor. If a town or village did not organize their lives for the production of spices they faced harsh penalties. Life under the Dutch was harsh in many cases and there were many cases of the torture of Indonesians if they refused to cooperate or did not produce what was expected of them.The imperial ambitions of the Dutch were bolstered by the strength of their existing shipping industry, as well as the key role they played in the expansion of maritime trade between Europe and the Orient. In 1603, the first permanent Dutch trading post in Indonesia was established in Banten (town), northwest Java and in 1611, another was established at Jayakarta (later renamed 'Batavia' and then 'Jakarta').Because small European trading companies often lacked the capital or the manpower for large scale operations, the States General chartered the Dutch West India Company and the Dutch East India Company in the early seventeenth century. These were considered the largest and most extensive maritime trading companies at the time, and once held a virtual monopoly on strategic European shipping routes westward through the Strait of Magellan, and eastward around the Cape of Good Hope. The companies' brief domination of global commerce contributed greatly to a commercial revolution and a cultural flowering in the Netherlands known as the Dutch Golden Age.In their search for new trade passages between Indonesia.

The First Dutch Expedition to Indonesia was an expedition that took place from 1595 to 1597. It was instrumental in the opening up of the Indonesian spice trade to the merchants that eventually formed the Dutch East India Company, and marked the end of the Portuguese Empire's dominance in the region.

The United East India Company or the United East Indian Company, also known as the United East Indies Company in modern spelling; VOC), referred to by the British as the Dutch East India Company, or sometimes known as the Dutch East Indies Company, was originally established as a chartered company in 1602, when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on the Dutch spice trade.

Pieter Both (1568 – 6 March 1615) was the first Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies in Batavia/Jakarta .Not much is known of his early years. In 1599, Both was already an admiral in the New, or Brabant Company. In that year, he traveled to the East Indies with four ships. When the newly founded Dutch East India Company set up a government for the Dutch East Indies, Pieter Both was invited to become the Governor-General . He held that position from 19 December 1610 to 6 November 1614. During that period he concluded contracts with the Moluccans, conquered Timor, and drove the Spaniards out of Tidore,Indonesia.

VOC headquarters were in Ambon Island from 1610 to 1619, and although it was located centrally in the spice production areas, it was far from the Asian trade routes and other VOC activity ranging from Africa to Japan.[4] A location in the west of the archipelago was thus sought; while the Straits of Malacca were strategic, the Portuguese conquest had made them dangerous, and the first permanent VOC settlement in Banten was difficult due to control by a powerful local ruler and competition from Chinese and English traders.In 1604, a second British East India Company voyage to Maluku, and subsequent establishments of trading posts between 1611 and 1617 across the archipelago began Anglo-Dutch competition for access to spices as the Dutch monopolistic ambitions were threatened.Diplomatic agreements and co-operation between the Dutch and the English over the spice trade ended with the Amboyna massacre where ten Englishmen were tortured and killed for conspiracy against the Dutch government, following which the English withdrew from their Indonesian activities (except in Banten).In 1619, Jan Pieterszoon Coen was appointed Governor-General of the VOC. On 30 May 1619, Coen, backed by a force of nineteen ships, stormed Jayakarta, driving out the Banten forces, and from the ashes, established Batavia as the VOC headquarters. By the mid-17th century, Batavia had become an important trade centre. It had repelled attacks from the Javanese Mataram kingdom. The Dutch defeated the Sulawesi city of Makassar in 1667 thus bringing its trade under VOC control. Sumatran ports were also brought under VOC control and the last of the Portuguese were expelled in 1660. In return for monopoly control over the pepper trade and the expulsion of the British, the Dutch helped the son of the ruler of Banten overthrow his father in 1680.VOC policy at this time was to concentrate on its trading posts and to not become involved in costly territorial conquest. However, the company became deeply involved in the internal politics of Java in this period, and fought in a number of wars involving the leaders of Mataram and Banten (Bantam). The VOC reached an accord with the susuhunan (king) of Mataram, Java's dominant kingdom, that only allowed Dutch ships to trade within the archipelago.Although they failed to gain complete control of the Indonesian spice trade, they had much more success than the previous Portuguese efforts. They exploited the factionalisation of the small kingdoms in Java that had replaced Majapahit, establishing a permanent foothold in Java, from which grew a land-based colonial empire which became one of the world's richest colonial possessions.

Famous  Governor Herman Willem Daendels (21 October 1762 – 2 May 1818) was a Dutch politician who served as the 36th Governor General of the Dutch East Indies between 1808 and 1811 in  Batavia/Jakarta

Palace of Governor General H.W. Daendels (1808-1810).The palace was rebuilt into its present form in this time with only one storey instead of the original three, as a precaution against further earthquakes.

In 1603, the Dutch East India Company commenced operations in Indonesia where it fought battles to expand its domain. Though Indonesian history featured other European colonial regimes, it was the Dutch who solidified their hold on the country.

Though Indonesian history featured other European colonial regimes, it was the Dutch who solidified their hold on the country. After the Company's bankruptcy in 1800, the Dutch state took control of the archipelago in 1826.Following this the Dutch state also fought against the natives and then enforced a period of forced labour and indentured servitude until 1870 when, in 1901, they adopted the "Dutch Ethical Policy and Indonesian National Revival," which included a somewhat increased investment in indigenous education and modest political reforms. Only in the 20th century, however, was Dutch rule enhanced to what would become Indonesia. Following Japanese occupation during World War II, the Netherlands tried to re-establish their rule, amid a bitter armed and diplomatic struggle that ended in December 1949. International pressure then forced the Dutch to formally recognise Indonesian independence. In 1956, the socialist government of Indonesia cut off all diplomatic ties with the Netherlands, ties that were restored only in 1968 by the new right-wing government. The Dutch formally relinquished their colonial status at the Round Table Conference at The Hague in 1949. They did not do so, however, without exacting some very serious concessions from the Indonesian government, whose Prime Minister at the time was the reactionary Mohammed Hatta  later to become an outright enemy of Sukarno and leader of the CIA-backed secessionist movement in 1958.Hatta agreed to the restoration of "broad avenues of [Dutch] economic power over Indonesia, such as rights, concessions and licenses for the operation of existing and new enterprises and estates. Furthermore, the Indonesian Government was forced to take over the debts of the Netherlands East Indies Government, which amounted to more than a billion dollars, and which, in effect, meant that the Indonesians were paying for the Dutch military attack which had been launched against them.In 1950, Indonesia finally abrogated this deal and tried to make further steps toward real sovereignty, although these outrageous concessions to the Dutch had already helped to further weaken its terribly crippled economy.

Dutch Control in Surabaya 1929-1945,Indonesia,the Dutch East Indies was a Dutch colony in what is now modern day,Surabaya is Indonesia's second large city after Batavia/Jakarta.

Here is a group of the Dutch internees taken in March 1946, probably about 6 months after liberation. They had begun to recover from their ordeal and are headed for America to recuperate. Evacuees from Japanese prison camps.

9 January 1942 - Japanese advances in Borneo meet with little opposition.Japanese soldiers in a captured oil field in the dutch east indies .

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