MYANMAR'S A HALF CENTURY MILITARY DICTATOR HAS OFFICIALLY ENDED,BUT NOT YET DEMOCRACY.
Burma’s military dictatorship is different for four historical reasons – a strong military tradition, a relatively weak civil society, a long-standing fear of national disintegration and an equally long-standing fear of foreign intervention.For years it seemed like this day would never come. In 1962 the mystical military strongman Ne Win took control. The junta called an election in 1990, which gave a landslide victory to Aung San Suu Kyi, daughter of a respected independence leader, and her National League for Democracy. The junta voided the results and redoubled repression.In 1989, the military government officially changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma's colonial period or earlier, including that of the country itself: "Burma" became "Myanmar". The renaming remains a contested issue.
Myanmar’s military dictatorship and their 34 concrete ways of control, deception, and manipulation.The people of Myanmar "have yet to see real changes" in the government, in spite of "attempts at reform," they are still under "the tight ..
Myanmar's Top General Promises Continued Role For Military.
The root of military in Myanmar has been associated with the struggle for independence. Myanmar gained its independence on January 4, 1948 from British Empire under the leadership of General Aung San under Burma National Army. The Army in Myanmar had gained respect in independent Myanmar at the initial stage and was perceived as protector of the country. The military claimed itself as the founder of the Union of Burma, and the main force that held the country together during the civil war and also claimed that it has prevented the country from disintegrating. The first military rule began in 1958 and direct military rule started when General Ne Win captured power through a military coup in 1962 lasted for 12 years, in the claim to save the country from disintegration.Burma’s pre-colonial economy in Burma was essentially a subsistence economy, with the majority of the population involved in rice production and other forms of agriculture. All land was technically owned by the Burmese monarch. Exports, along with oil wells, gem mining and teak production were controlled by the monarch. Burma was vitally involved in the Indian Ocean trade. Logged teak was a prized export that was used in European shipbuilding, because of its durability, and became the focal point of the Burmese export trade from the 1700s to the 1800s. During British occupation, Burma was the second wealthiest country in Southeast Asia after the Philippines. It was also once the world’s largest exporter of rice. During British administration, Burma supplied oil through the Burmah Oil Company. Burma also had a wealth of natural and labor resources. It produced 75% of the world’s teak and had a highly literate population. The country was believed to be on the fast track to development.
Aung San Suu Kyi joined Myanmar’s generals at an annual military parade for the first time .
After the Independence from British rule and a parliamentary government was formed in 1948, Prime Minister U Nu attempted to make Burma a welfare state and adopted central planning. Rice exports fell by two thirds and mineral exports by over 96%. Plans were partly financed by printing money, which led to inflation. This was followed by the 1962 coup d’état under General Ne Win who introduced an economic scheme called the ‘Burmese Way to Socialism’, a plan to nationalize all industries, with the exception of agriculture. The catastrophic program turned Burma into one of the world’s most impoverished countries. Burma’s admittance to least developed country status by the United Nations in 1987 highlighted its economic bankruptcy. The military’s involvement in the direct management of economic enterprises was an outgrowth of its conception of its own self-perceived role as the essential positive social force. Under the leadership of the military-mandated Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP, 1962-1988), the military managed to transform what, in natural resources and population/land ratio, should have been the wealthiest country in Southeast Asia to one of the poorest.
New President of Myanmar ,President U Htin Kyaw who has been President of Myanmar since 2016 ushering in the first democratically elected government into office after decades of military rule.