SLAVERY,RACE AND CAPITALISM,AMERICAN SLAVERY BEGAN IN 1619,THE SLAVE OWNERS CALLED THEM "TALKING TOOLS ".

These slaves went through forced migration to the U.S.Many multinationals in Europe and America can trace some of their money to the slave trade.

Slavery helped finance the Industrial Revolution in Europe. Plantation owners, shipbuilders, and merchants who dealt in the slave trade accumulated vast fortunes, leading to the establishment of banks and heavy industry in Europe and the strengthening and expansion of capitalism around the world.

From about 1600 to 1850, some 4.5 million enslaved Africans were taken to Brazil, which amounts to 40 percent of all slaves brought to the Americas.Historians’ recent investigations of the centrality of racialized chattel slavery to the origins of capitalism  along with activists’ efforts to expose the ongoing legacy of New World slavery  inspire a broad reconsideration of the connections between capitalism, race, and coerced labor across time and around the world. Slave trade, however, became a large-scale European and North-American enterprise only from the 15th century, culminating toward the beginning of the 19th century, which entailed great economic growth involving rising living standards among the middle and lower classes in Europe and British North-America. Plantation economy based on agricultural mass production by African forced labor on large farms (called plantations) in the American South proved profitable , thus in large measure determining the future history and culture of the country.Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries after it gained independence and before the end of the American Civil War. Slavery had been practiced in British North America from early colonial days, and was legal in all Thirteen Colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence in 177.

A slave family standing next to baskets of recently-picked cotton near Savannah, Georgia in the 1860sThe Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Lives in the Americas.The American South and the Contradictions of American Slavery.

Capitalism and Slavery, in part, by demonstrating how other people fell into this economic trap set up by  Europeans. Un-free labor, as Capitalism and Slavery shows, was made up of people of all skin colors, ethnicities, and religions. When colonists first settled the New World and began establishing an agricultural economy there, they preyed upon the Native Americans first. The masters turned to fellow white Europeans next after the Native Americans failed to provide the sheer numbers of workers necessary for the burgeoning New World agriculture. These poor whites consisted of indentured servants, who came to the New World under contract with an employer. There were also “redemptioners,” Europeans who laid their labor on the line for a trip across the Atlantic. If the redemptioners could not pay their trip fee, they became indebted to the ship’s captain or owner, who could then sell them. Many other Europeans came across the ocean in shackles because they were convicts. Some whites found themselves in the New World because they were being punished for their religious or political beliefs, like the Irish during Cromwell’s reign. Worse yet are the numerous European individuals who were kidnapped and sold into slavery.
Slavery existed long before capitalism. As primitive tribes, which once roamed the earth, grew larger they developed a social division of labor. Some of the tribal members became rulers and priests and others became full-time hunters and/or fighters.Many of these slaves enjoyed a relatively good life working for individual families. Others were cruelly worked to death in mines and galleys. Slavery also existed in most feudal countries, but did not play the dominate economic role.With their discovery of the Western Hemisphere, Europeans tried to enslave the indigenous population, but were largely unsuccessful. Then began the massive uprooting of Africans, who were deprived of their names, families, cultures and religions. Slavery and racism joined hand-in-hand to perpetuate a system that was more inhumane than any that had gone before it.

A group of slaves gathered outside their quarters on a plantation on Cockspur Island, Georgia in the mid-19th century.

Slave trader's business in Atlanta, Georgia, 1864.

Since the chattel slave is property, the value to an owner is in some ways higher than that of a worker who may quit, be fired or replaced. The chattel slave's owner has made a greater investment in terms of the money he paid for the slave. For this reason, in times of recession, chattel slaves could not be fired like wage laborers. A "wage slave" could also be harmed at no (or less) cost. American chattel slaves in the 19th century had improved their standard of living from the 18th century and, according to historians Fogel and Engerman plantation records show that slaves worked less, were better fed and whipped only occasionally   their material conditions in the 19th century being "better than what was typically available to free urban laborers at the time".This was partially due to slave psychological strategies under an economic system different from capitalist wage slavery. According to Mark Michael Smith of the Economic History Society: "although intrusive and oppressive, paternalism, the way masters employed it, and the methods slaves used to manipulate it, rendered slaveholders' attempts to institute capitalistic work regimens on their plantation ineffective and so allowed slaves to carve out a degree of autonomy." Similarly, various strategies and struggles adopted by wage laborers contributed to the creation of labor unions and welfare institutions, etc. that helped improve standards of living since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Nevertheless, worldwide, work-related injuries and illnesses still kill at least 2.3 million workers per year with "between 184 and 208 million workers suffer[ing] from work-related diseases" and about "270 million" non-lethal injuries of varying severity "caused by preventable factors at the workplace", a number that may or may not compare favorably with chattel slavery's.The African slave trade was also the backbone of the rise of the U.S. as a dominant capitalist power.

The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Lives in the Americas.It has been theorized that the money from slave trade led to the rise of commercial capitalism and brought about the Industrial Revolution.

When the first Mormon Pioneers entered the Great Salt Lake Valley in 1847, three of them were slaves. That number grew over the years.For 150 years, the Juneteeth holiday has been celebrated across the country to commemorate the day black slaves in Texas first learned of their emancipation by Abraham Lincoln.



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