ROMAN EMPEROR JULIUS CAESAR,THE DICTATOR OF ROME (100 BC – 44 BC)
Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. He is also known as a notable author of Latin prose.
Julius Caesar was born in Rome, on either the 12 or 13 of July in 100 B.C. Through a combination of political savvy, charisma and backhanded dealings, he quickly rose to power, becoming dictator of Rome in 49 B.C. after emerging victorious from a civil war. As dictator he instituted a number of reforms, from expanding who could be considered a Roman citizen to changing the Roman calendar.In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain.These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman Italy under arms. Civil war resulted, and Caesar's victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.
Julius Caesar had returned to Rome in triumph, hailed as a hero. During his time as a Roman general, he claimed to have killed almost two million people in fifty decisive battles. Although loved by the citizens of Rome, he caused, in many ways, worry among those in the Roman Senate - especially the old elite, the Optimates.
When Julius Caesar returned to Rome in 46 BCE, among his triumphs was the first naumachia or mock sea battle (although the life-and-death struggle certainly was real enough to those who were forced to participate). It took place on a water-filled basin constructed in the Campus Martius, a low-lying area in a bend of the river Tiber.Rome doesn't want for famous residents from artists to politicians, many notables have called the city home. But, arguably, none changed its course more than Julius Caesar, the shrewd military leader and politician who greatly expanded the Roman Empire and eventually become its self-appointed dictator, paving the way for the imperial system.But the fact that Caesar had not returned home at once had given Pompey's sons enough time to raise new armies. Two more campaigns were needed, in Africa and Spain, culminating in the battle of Munda on 17 March 45 BC. In October of that year Caesar was back in Rome. Quickly it showed that Caesar was not merely a conqueror and destroyer. Caesar was a builder, a visionary statesman, the likes of which the world rarely gets to see.He established order, begun measures to reduce congestion in Rome, draining large tracts of marshy lands, gave full voting rights to the inhabitants of his former province south of the Alps, revised the tax laws of Asia and Sicily, resettled many Romans in new homes in the Roman provinces and reformed the calendar, which, with one slight adjustment.
Julius Caesar, who essentially the dictator of Rome in Cleopatra's time, arrived in Egypt during the civil war between Cleopatra and her brother. Caesar came to claim the debts Egypt owed Rome as to have been strategic, romantic. For his part Caesar made little mention of Cleopatra in his account of the Alexandrine wars. Whether it was the beauty of Cleopatra, the fact that she was a direct descendant of Alexander the Great, her courage or her charisma which charmed Caesar from this point (or shortly after) they became lovers.
Caesar's colonial policy, combined with his generosity in granting citizenship to individuals and communities, was to rejuvenate both the Roman legions and the Roman governing class. And Caesar, who included some provincial aristocrats in his enlarged Senate, was perfectly aware of what he was doing.But despite the pardons he granted to his old senatorial enemies, despite not drowning Rome in blood like Sulla and Marius had done, when they had seized power, Caesar failed to win over his enemies.Worse still, many Romans feared that Caesar was going to make himself king. And Rome still held an old hatred to its ancient kings. Many saw their fears only confirmed as Cleopatra with her son Caesarion was brought to Rome. Was Rome perhaps the most cosmopolitan place in the world of that day, it still didn't take kindly to foreigners, the people of the east in particular. And so Cleopatra had to leave again. The power of Julius Caesar Death was at its highest. He had enraged noble Patricians with his relationship with Cleopatra and was considering divorcing his wife Calpurnia to marry her. But his keeping the dictatorship was the real grievance, and the remains of the old party in the Senate could not bear that the patrician freedom of Rome should be lost. Every now and then his flatterers offered him a royal crown and hailed him as king, though he always refused it and this title still stirred up bitter hatred. He was preparing an army intending to march into the far East, where no one but Alexander had gone before. His plans were known and if he came back victorious no one would be able to stand against him. The noble Patricians of Ancient Rome decided to take the most drastic of actions - they planned to murder Julius Caesar and assassinate him in the Senate.
Assassination of Julius Caesar,his brief reign came to a bloody end when he was stabbed by a group of Roman senators in Pompey's Theater on March 15, 44 B.C.
The assassination of Julius Caesar was the result of a conspiracy by many Roman senators. Led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus, and Marcus Junius Brutus, they stabbed Julius Caesar to death in a location adjacent to the Theatre of Pompey on the Ides of March (March 15), 44 BC. Caesar was the dictator of the Roman Republic at the time, having recently been declared dictator perpetuo by the Senate. This declaration made several senators fear that Caesar wanted to overthrow the Senate in favor of tyranny. The conspirators were unable to restore the Roman Republic. The ramifications of the assassination led to the Liberators' civil war and, ultimately, to the Principate period of the Roman Empire.
Mark Antony‘s funeral speech for Julius Caesar,Throughout his speech, Antony calls the conspirators “honourable men” with his implied sarcasm becoming increasingly obvious. Antony begins by carefully rebutting the notion that his friend, Caesar deserved to die because he was ambitious, instead claiming that his actions were for the good of the Roman people, whom he cared for deeply.