NAPOLEON BONAPARTE,THE EMPEROR OF FRANCE (1769 - 1821).WHO CONQUERED MUCH OF EUROPE IN THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY.
Napoleon has been called the "French Revolution on Horseback," a title which has considerable validity if his actions and his program are considered.
Napoleon Bonaparte , also known as Napoleon I, was a French military leader and emperor who conquered much of Europe in the early 19th century. He was born Napoleone di Buonaparte (Italian: [napoleˈoːne di bwɔnaˈparte]) in Corsica, to a relatively modest family from the minor nobility. When the Revolution broke out in 1789, Napoleon was serving as an artillery officer in the French army. Seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution, he rapidly rose through the ranks of the military, becoming a general at age 24. The Directory eventually gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents. At age 26, he began his first military campaign against the Austrians and their Italian allies—winning virtually every battle, conquering the Italian Peninsula in a year, and becoming a national hero. In 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt that served as a springboard to political power. He engineered a coup in November 1799 and became First Consul of the Republic. His ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, and in 1804 he became the first Emperor of the French. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805.
Wedding of prince Jérôme Bonaparte and Catharina of Württemberg, in the presence of the Imperial Family.Bonaparte family event shows Ladies retaining some individual identity while conforming to strict dictates of etiquette .
Napoleon shattered this coalition with decisive victories in the Ulm Campaign and a historic triumph over Russia and Austria at the Battle of Austerlitz, which led to the elimination of the thousand-year-old Holy Roman Empire. In 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon quickly defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, then marched the Grand Army deep into Eastern Europe and annihilated the Russians in June 1807 at the Battle of Friedland. France then forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire. In 1809, the Austrians and the British challenged the French again during the War of the Fifth Coalition, but Napoleon solidified his grip over Europe after triumphing at the Battle of Wagram in July.
Battle of the Pyramids, also called Battle of Embabeh, (July 21, 1798), military engagement in which Napoleon Bonaparte and his French troops captured Cairo. His victory was attributed to the implementation of his one significant tactical innovation, the massive divisional square.
Napoleonic War England,between 1803 and 1815, Great Britain was the most constant of Napoleon's enemies. Through its command of the sea, subsidies to allies on the European mainland, and active military intervention in the Peninsular War, Britain played the central role in Napoleon's downfall even as all the other major powers switched back and forth.
Napoleonic return from Elba during the Hundred Days. It's the stuff legends are made of - returning to Paris from exile with a thousand soldiers when all the armies of Europe are against him and retaking Paris without firing a shot! This return to power was unprecedented in history and hasn't been repeated since.The brig Inconstant, with Napoleon on board and accompanied by a small flotilla of six ships, departed at nine o’clock from the island of Elba. Profiting by the British commissioner Neil Campbell’s absence, Napoleon was able to escape, accompanied by his soldiers. ‘Paris or death!’ cried the grenadiers, once they were told on board The Inconstant that they were headed for France.Napoleon disembarked in Golfe-Juan, between Cannes and Antibes, on the French Riviera, with a total force of 1,142 men and 2 light cannon. He was about to embark on the most fascinating endeavour in history. 'After the fall of Paris, my heart was torn apart but my spirit remained resolute. Frenchmen, in my exile I heard your complaints and wishes. So, amid all sorts of dangers, I arrived among you to regain my rights, which are yours,' he stated in his proclamation. Napoleon's triumphant return was made possible by the support he still enjoyed in France, from soldiers who wanted to return to glory and full pay, peasants who feared the return of feudal dues, land owners who didn't want to lose their property to nobles and the Church, and imperial civil servants who lost their jobs to the royalists. Napoleon would march to Paris via what is now known as Route Napoleon, a road that was inaugurated by the French government in 1932. It runs from the French Riviera along the foothills of the Alps, marked by impressive stone Imperial Eagles.
Napoleon exiled to Elba in 1814, Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of France and one of the greatest military leaders in history, abdicates the throne, and, in the Treaty of Fontainebleau, is banished to the Mediterranean island of Elba.
Napoleon receives the keys of Vienna. In Moravia, an impressive Austro-Russian army commanded by Emperor Alexander managed to regroup. In Vienna, Kutuzov’s corps commander, Bagration, paid Murat back for the Danube bridges incident. The formidable position of Hollabrünn, which Murat and Lannes, already held, was on the road he was to use to flee towards the bulk of the Russian forces. The crafty Bagration introduced himself to Murat and tricked him into thinking that Napoleon and Alexander had just signed an armistice. Despite Lannes’ skepticism, Murat, the man who had been standing in Bagration’s shoes just a few days earlier, fell for the ploy. By the time the French realized they had been duped, it was too late. The fighting that ensued at Hollabrünn to make up for the blunder was particularly fierce and costly.
The most exciting moment happened on 7 March 1815 when Napoleon encountered soldiers of the 5th, who were sent by Louis XVIII to capture him. They caught up to him a few hundred yards south of the town of Laffrey, on what today is known as La Prairie de la Rencontre. For Napoleon, it was the moment of truth. It was his first encounter with the French army since he left Elba. Would they support him? Were they still loyal to him, like they were loyal at Austerlitz, at Wagram, at Marengo? He was about to find out.The commander ordered the troops to fire on Napoleon but no one did. Standing within musket shot, Napoleon opened his iconic overcoat and addressed the troops: 'Soldiers of the 5th! I’ve come back to see you. Do some of you want to kill me?' The troops threw down their muskets and embraced their Emperor. This incident demonstrated Napoleon's incredible bravery, since a single shot from a royalist officer could have brought everything to an end
The siege of Madrid was the final French success during Napoleon’s only campaign in Spain. Having successfully defeated the Spanish armies on the Ebro at the battles of Gamonel, 10 November 1808 and of Tudela, 23 November 1808, and Blake’s army in northern Spain at Zornoza 31 October 1808 and Espinosa de los Monteros, 10 November 1808, the French were free to advance on Madrid. After brushing aside the last line of Spanish resistance at the Somosierra Pass on 30 November 1808, the first French troops arrived outside Madrid on December 1.