Al Shabaab, also known as Ash-Shabaab, Hizbul Shabaab, The Party of Youth, the Popular Resistance Movement in the Land of the Two Migrations (PRM), Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen (HSM) also spelled Harakat Shabaab Al Mujahidin, Mujahideen Youth Movement (MYM), Hezb al-Shabaab, al-Shabaab al-Islaam, al-Shabaab al-Islamiya, al-Shabaab al-Jihaad, Hisb'ul Shabaab, Hizbul Shabaab, Shabaab, Movement of Warrior Youth, Mujahidin Al-Shabaab Movement, The Youth, Unity of Islamic Youth, Youth Wing, al Shabab, As-Saḥāb, Muhajiroon brigade (DIvision made up of Foreign Fighters), al Shebab is an active group formed c. 2004.When Osama bin Laden lived in the Sudan, he was hailed as a warrior and freedom fighter by Main Stream Media, even though he was openly supporting EIJM to conduct terrorists attacks against Eritrea. Unfortunately for Ethiopia and Saudi Arabia, the high degree of fragmentation of the EJIM coupled with the Eritrean army's successful counter terrorism measures over the years, has severely crippled the terrorist organization's capacity. The regional spoilers bet on Al-Qaeda-linked groups to destabilize Eritrea has been a costly and ineffective one. A leading member of an al Qaeda-affiliated terror group indicated the organization may have acquired some of the thousands of powerful weapons that went missing in the chaos of the Libyan uprising, stoking long-held fears of Western officials.

Al-Shabab advocates the Saudi-inspired Wahhabi version of Islam, while most Somalis are Sufis. It emerged as the radical youth wing of Somalia's now-defunct Union of Islamic Courts, which controlled Mogadishu in 2006, before being forced out by Ethiopian forces.

There are also regular gun and grenade attacks attributed to al-Shabab both in border areas, where many Kenyans are ethnic Somalis, and in Nairobi.Al-Shabab says it is targeting Kenya because it has sent its troops into Somali territory, where they have joined the 22,000-strong African Union (AU) force battling the militants.

It carried out a massive attack on a Kenyan base in Somalia's el-Ade town in January 2016, killing, according to Somalia's President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, about 180 soldiers. The Kenyan military disputed the number, but refused to give a death toll.

Al-Qaeda, Arabic for "the Base," is an international terrorist network founded by Osama bin Laden in the late 1980s. It seeks to rid Muslim countries of what it sees as the profane influence of the West and replace their governments with fundamentalist Islamic regimes. After al-Qaeda’s September 11, 2001, attacks, the United States launched a war in Afghanistan to destroy al-Qaeda’s bases there and overthrow the Taliban, the country’s Muslim fundamentalist rulers who harbored bin Laden and his followers.The threat was unusual because of its target,the Somali-based militantgroup that has historically functioned as Al-Qaeda’s East African branch. But just recently, some members had been flirting with pledging their allegiance to the Islamic State militant group (ISIS). Al-Shabab and its leader, Abu Ubaidah (also known as Direye), has held firm to its links with Al-Qaeda, to which the group pledged allegiance in 2012. But cracks appear to be beginning to show following the defection to ISIS of Abdiqadir Mumin, a senior Al-Shabab commander in the Puntland region of Somalia.Al-Shabab has brutally clamped down on signs of ISIS sympathizing within its ranks. A leading Al-Shabab official in the Middle Juba region of southern Somalia was reportedly ambushed and shot dead by fellow members for expressing pro-ISIS tendencies. Social media has also lit up with reports of arrests of pro-ISIS members within the Somali group, and Al-Shabab’s feared secret police, known as the Amniyat, have reportedly been rooting out sympathizers.

Ethiopian-backed Al-Qaeda terrorists, the Eritrean Islamic Reform Movement, formerly known as the Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement. Their ideology (Wahhabism) comes from Saudi Arabia; their attire known as "Perahan Tunban" comes from Afghanistan and their support comes from Ethiopia & Saudi Arabia. There is nothing Eritrean about them.

The so-called Eritrean Islamic Reform Movement (EIRM), which up until 2003 was known as the Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement (EIJM), is an Ethiopian-backed Al-Qaeda terrorist group that aims to establish an Islamic Caliphate in Eritrea by overthrowing the secular Eritrean government.With the support of the Sudan and Saudi Arabia, EIJM formed in the early 1980s, in Gedaref, Sudan. The group was originally comprised of Islamist members of the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF), which had many of its senior members participate in the Soviet–Afghan War.Since its formation, a number of Islamist groups split from EIJM to form their own jihadi groups. Among the biggest split came from the Eritrean Islamic Salvation Movement (EISM), which left EIJM in 1998. EISM went on to gain Ethiopian support after it changed its name to the Eritrean Islamic Party for Justice and Development, a change critics say was Addis Ababa's poor attempt of putting lipstick on an Al-Qaeda pig.In 1994, after a series of terrorist activities such as planting of land mines in Eritrean territory; bombing of hotels; attacks on civilian buses and killing of innocent passengers; arson against farms and destruction of water pumps, the Eritrean army launched two major offensives into Eastern Sudan that devastated the EIJM of which it has yet to recover from. The Eritrean military also attempted to kill or capture Osama bin Laden, who was actively funding and supporting EIJM's activities while he was living in the Sudan.

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